The digital camera is one of the most remarkable instances of this shift because it is so truly different from its predecessor. Conventional cameras depend entirely on chemical and mechanical processes – you don’t even need electricity to operate them. On the other hand, all digital cameras have a built-in computer and all of them record images electronically.
Digital camera records and stores photographic images in digital form. Many current models are also able to capture sound or video, in addition to still images. Capture is usually accomplished by use of a photosensor, using a charged coupled device (CCD).These stored images can be uploaded to a computer immediately or stored in the camera for to be uploaded into a computer or printer later. Images may also be archived on a photographic compact disc or external hard disk. Digital cameras come in a wide range of sizes, prices and capabilities. In addition to general purpose digital cameras, specialized cameras including multispectral imaging equipment and astrographs are used for scientific, military, medical and other special purposes.
1. Compact Camera
“Compact cameras” are cameras which have appropriate dimensions for putting them into the pocket of a jacket instead of a special camera bag. They are popular with people who do not consider themselves photographers but want easy-to-use cameras for snapshots of vacations, parties, reunions and other events. Compact camera sales declined after about 2010 as smartphones overtook them in such uses. Also, called as Point-And-Shoot or Mirrorless Interchangeable Lens.
2. Rugged Compact Camera
Rugged cameras are getting tougher all the time. They can stand bigger falls, deeper water and more brutal temperatures. Nearly all major camera manufacturers have at least one product in this category, some may be waterproof or freezeproof or heatproof or shockproof or crushproof. Ruggeds often lack some of the features of an ordinary compact camera, but they have video capability and the majority can record sound. Most have image stabilization and built-in flash. Touchscreen LCD and GPS do not work underwater. Also, called as Action Camera.
3. 360 Degree Camera
You don’t see the world around you in a rectangle or a square, so why should limit yourself to that view in photos and videos? 360-degree cameras let you record everything going on around you at once and you can share that experience on Facebook or YouTube so friends can pan around a scene and fully be there in the moment. There are two distinct types of 360-degree cameras: single-lens and dual-lens offerings. Single-lens cameras typically capture content with better quality, while dual-lens offerings stitch content together with less-than-stellar results on some occasions.
4. Modular Camera
Today, it often seems that by the time a camera is available for purchase, it has already become obsolete. There is nothing more frustrating than discovering the state of the art camera you bought three months ago is now on its way to being irrelevant. Some camera companies think they have found a way to solve this problem – the modular camera.
What is a modular camera? A modular camera is simply a camera built up of individual smaller parts that can be configured in multiple ways. Modular cameras allow for interchangeability of camera components and accessories. Not only does this mitigate becoming obsolete, it also gives the user more versatility and use for the camera. This also potentially extends the life of your camera. If a part goes bad you can just take out the old one and re-attach the new one. 5. Single Lens Reflex (SLR) Camera
A single-lens reflex camera (SLR) is a camera that typically uses a mirror and prism system (hence “reflex” from the mirror’s reflection) that permits the photographer to view through the lens and see exactly what will be captured. SLR cameras allow expert photographers to change lenses and choose the right lens for the given shooting situation. SLR camera uses a film made of plastic, gelatin, and other material to record the image. The main advantage of an SLR camera over the point-and-shoots is that you can change the lenses so you can have exactly the right lens for the subject you’re shooting.
DSLRs have built-in mirrors (reflex) so the image you see bounces up to the viewfinder. It passes through a focusing screen and a condenser lens and then reflects off of a prism’s walls to reach your eye. This allows you to see exactly what the lens sees through the viewfinder. When you hit the shutter release the mirror flips up to get out of the way. Once this happens, the shutter opens and let the light pass through the lens to imaging sensor which is rated in megapixels (MP).
Basically, a DSLR is just a camera that uses mirrors and interchangeable lenses. This is one of the best features of a DSLR – ability to switch lenses. Each delivers a new and invigorating view. There are telephoto lenses, wide-angles, fisheyes and much more. A telephoto lens lets you see farther so you can zoom in on a faraway subject, a wide-angle lens allows a wider field of view which is great for landscapes and fisheyes are extra wide-angle lenses that distort images in unique ways. 7. Digital Single Lens Translucent (DSLT) Camera
Heard about DSLT cameras? it is not a typo error. Don’t get confused with DSLR . Well, from the outside, DSLT and DSLR cameras look same. The difference lies in the mirror technology. DSLT cameras has a fixed translucent mirror, and the DSLR cameras has a reflex moving mirror. Because of this reflex mirror, when you look through the viewfinder of a DSLR camera, what you see is exactly what you are going to get in the photograph.
8. Bridge Camera
Bridge cameras fill the niche between the single-lens reflex cameras (SLRs) and the point-and-shoot camera. Bridge Camera is a general name for digital cameras that have some degree of manual control, a long-range zoom lens, and a viewfinder – but usually not interchangeable lenses. Unsurprisingly, its design has aspects of the two types of camera, although the overall look and handling of a bridge camera tends to suggest what we’d term a DSLR ‘lite’.
9. Digital Rangefinder Camera
Leica released its first digital rangefinder camera, the Leica M8, in 2006. These are called “rangefinder” cameras because they focus using a dual-image rangefinding device. You turn a ring, and when two superimposed images line up, you’re in perfect focus. With a rangefinder camera, you never look through the lens. You focus and compose through a window on the top right, just like on a disposable camera.
10. Line Scan Camera
Line scan cameras are based on building-up an image, one line at a time, using a line sensor which passes in a linear motion over an object, or where the object passes in a linear motion under the sensor. Line scan cameras are also extensively used in imaging from satellites. They are also widely used in scanners. In this case, the camera moves horizontally.